400 B.C. Plato
Recognized management as a separate art; promoted principles of specialization.
325 B.C. Alexander the Great
Applied the principle of line and staff to help conquer most of the known world.
284 A.D. Diocletian
First Roman emperor to rule through genuine delegation of authority and chain of command. He divided the empire into 101 provinces, grouped into 13 dioceses; the dioceses, in turn, were organized into four major geographic divisions.
Invented double-entry bookkeeping.
Recognized the need for consent and cohesiveness in an effective organization and tried to identify leadership traits.
1776 Adam Smith
Began his great economic work, Wealth of Nations, by discussing the principle of specialization.
1789 George Washington
Began what evolved into veterans preference by selecting many of those who had served in the Revolutionary War to fill civil service positions in the new government.
1801 Thomas Jefferson
Began the spoils system in U.S. Government employment.
1810 Robert Owen
Recognized need for training workers and other personnel practices.
1829 Andrew Jackson
Extended the spoils system in U.S. Government employment.
1850 John Stuart Mill
Explained concepts such as span of control, unity of command, and wage incentives.
1856 Daniel C. McCallum
On October 5, 1841 two American passenger trains collided head-on, making it clear that one boss could not watch everything. A well-defined organizational structure was needed, and McCallum developed the organization chart to show that structure.
1883 Pendleton Act
Curbed the spoils system and established the U.S. Civil Service Commission.
1887 Woodrow Wilson
While still a practicing political scientist, Wilson called for public administration to focus on effectiveness and efficiency - not just personnel reform.
1900 Frederic Taylor
The "Father of Scientific Management" recognized the need for labor-management cooperation, for controlling costs, and analyzing work methods.
1919 Boston Police Strike
1921 Budget and Accounting Act
Was passed by Congress, creating the Bureau of the Budget (now Office of Management and Budget) and the General Accounting Office.
1922 Max Weber
The German sociologist articulated the classical definition of the bureaucratic form of organization. (Was not translated and published in the United States until after World War II.)
1923 Classification Act
Began the rationalization of position classification in the federal service.
1927 Elton Mayo
Began the famous management study at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago which examined the relationship between work environment and productivity. These studies were the genesis of the human relations school of management thought.
1930 Mary Parker Follet
Developed a management philosophy based on individual motivation and group problem solving - a forerunner of the participatory management idea.
1937 Brownlow Committee
Otherwise known as the President's 1937 Committee on Administrative Management and composed of Louis Brownlow, Charles Merriam, and Luther Gulick, made sweeping recommendations for the reorganization of the executive branch of the U.S. Government.
1937 Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick
Provided the definitive statement of the "principles" approach to management: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (in short, POSDCORB).
1938 Chester I. Barnard
Viewed organizations as cooperative systems in which the "functions of the executive" (title of his classic work) were to maintain a balance between the needs of the organization and the needs of the individual and to establish effective communication.
1939 American Society for Public Administration(ASPA)
A national professional organization "to advance the science, processes, and art of public administration" was organized.
1940 Robert K. Merton
Proclaimed that bureaucracy, which Weber (1922) had defined so systematically, had a number of dysfunctions (that is, characteristics that lead to inefficiency).
1943 Abraham H. Maslow
Developed a theory of human motivation in which men and women moved up or down a needs hierarchy, as each level was satisfied or threatened.
1946 Paul Appeleby
Asserted that processes in government organizations are political - at least more than those in business organizations. Philip Selznick, Norton Long, and other writers of the late 1940's were to add theoretical and empirical support to Appeleby's most un-Wilsonian (1887) thesis.
1947 Herbert A. Simon
In his classic Administrative Behavior, Simon, like Merton (1940), attacked the " principles" approach to management as often being inconsistent and inapplicable. Like Barnard (1938) and influenced by him, Simon advocated a systems approach to administration and the study of decision making.
1949 Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon and P.M.S. Blackett
Emphasized systems analysis, operations research, and information theory in management.
1955 Herbert Kaufman, Fred W. Riggs and Walter R. Sharp
First course on comparative administration introduced at Yale University. This movement, which represented a broadening of public administration to other cultures, began to wane in later years as American foreign aid programs were scaled back.
1957 Chris Argyris and Douglas McGregor
Placed emphasis on social psychology and research in human relations in achieving a better fit between the personality of a mature adult and the requirements of a modern organization. Argyris developed an open-system theory of organization, while McGregor poplarized a humanistic managerial philosophy.
1959 Charles A. Lindblom
In his influential essay, "The Science of Muddling Through," Lindblom attacked the rational models of decision making in government. In reality, the model did not work; decision makers, therefore, depend heavily on small, incremental decisions.
1961 Aaron Wildavsky
In an article, "The Political Implications of Budgetary Reform," Wildavsky developed the concept of budgetary incrementalism and its political nature that led to his landmark work, The Politics of the Budgetary Process. (1964).
1962 President Kennedy
Issued Executive Order 10988 which permitted unionization and collective bargaining in the federal service.
1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964
Title VII prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin in private-sector employment (would be applied to the public sector in 1972).
1964 Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton
Proposed that every leader could be categorized in terms of two variables: concern for task and concern for people. Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid was perhaps the best known of dozens of adaptations of this idea, which could be traced back to the Ohio State University leadership studies of the 1940's.
1965 Charles J. Hitch and Roland N. McKean
In the same year that President Johnson ordered Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems (PPBS) adopted governmentwide, the "bible" of government systems analysis appeared: The Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age.
1966 Equality of Educational Opportunity: The Coleman Report
methods of the social sciences to the analysis and evaluation of government programs.
1967 Anthony Downs
Applied economic principles to develop propositions to aid in predicting behavior of bureaus and bureaucrats. A forerunner of the "public choice" approach to decision making.
1967 Yehezkel Dror
Pioneered in the development of policy sciences (that is, the analysis of the anticipated effects of a public policy and the design of better policymaking institutions in government).
1967-73 The New Jersey Graduated Work Incentive Experiment
First large-scale social experiment ever conducted in the U.S. This experiment spanned 6 1/2 years (1967-1973) and cost eight million dollars.
1968 Dwight Waldo
Under the patronage of Waldo, some young scholars gathered to critique American public administration for ignoring values and social equity and accepting too readily the status quo. This movement was known as the "New Public Administration".
1971-72 Alice Rivlin and Carol Weiss
Provided a comprehensive analysis of the methodologies and difficulties of evaluating public programs in a dynamic political environment. Since that time, the importance of evaluation has grown rapidly.
1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Act
Amended and applied Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to the public sector and authorized the use of "affirmative action" to remedy the results of past dsicrimination.
1972 Griggs v. Duke Power
In this landmark opinion based on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the United States Supreme Court ruled that any factor used in an employment decision must be a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) related to the actual performance of the work.
1976 Peter F. Drucker
Addressed the problems of using management-by-objectives - a process of mutual goalsetting between employee and supervisor for purposes of planning and evaluation - in the public sector.
1978 Civil Service Reform Act
Significantly reorganized the Federal Civil Service.
1978 Proposition 13
Was adopted by California's voters by referendum; limited that state's ability to levy property taxes and began what has come to be called the "taxpayers' revolt."
1978 Regents v. Bakke
In its first major decision on affirmative action, the United States Supreme Court ruled that race could be a factor but not the factor in university admissions policies. This principle was later extended to employment and gender.
1980s A good way to characterize the study of public administration in the U.S. today is in terms of three impulses: politics, management, and public policy. University programs emphasizing politics tend to be found in departments of political science or separate schools of public administration (e.g., Syracuse). Programs emphasizing management tend to be found in schools of business (e.g., Stanford) or administration (e.g., Yale and Cornell). And programs emphasizing public policy tend to be found in schools of public affairs (e.g., Harvard and Texas). One should not view any of these three impulses as a panacea to replace faded predecessors. To understand better how public agencies do and should operate, one should try to blend insights from all three approaches.
1990 Americans with Disabilities Act.
Extended anti-discrimination protection to persons with disabilities.
1991 Civil Rights Act of 1991.
Attempted, inter alia, to clarify and limit certain recent decisions of the Supreme Court that were interpreted as hostile to affirmative action.
1993 Osborne and Gaebler publish Reinventing Government in an attempt to "empower government officials to bring business technologies to public service."
1997 The fourth edition of Simon's classic Administrative Behavior
is published on the 50th anniversary of the first.
Basic Source: Grover Starling, Managing the Public Sector, 3rd
ed. Chicago: Dorsey Press, 1986; revised and updated by WHR.
STUDENTS: Remember what a "highlight" is.
What appears above is, by no means, all you need to know; it is merely
a starting place. This study guide is not exhaustive in what it covers
or in how it covers it.