1491 B.C. Moses
During the exodus from Egypt Moses followed the recommendation of Jethro, his father-in-law, that he delegate authority over the tribes of Israel along hierarchical lines.

               400 B.C. Plato
 Recognized management as a separate art;  promoted principles of specialization.

               325 B.C. Alexander the Great
 Applied the principle of line and staff to help conquer most of the known world.

               284 A.D. Diocletian
 First Roman emperor to rule through genuine delegation of authority and chain of command.   He divided the empire into 101 provinces, grouped into 13 dioceses; the dioceses, in turn, were organized into four major geographic divisions.

               1494  Pacioli
 Invented double-entry bookkeeping.

               1525  Machiavelli
Recognized the need for consent and cohesiveness in an effective organization and tried to identify leadership traits.

               1776  Adam Smith
 Began his great economic work, Wealth of Nations, by discussing the principle of  specialization.

               1789  George Washington
Began what evolved into veterans preference by selecting many of those who had served in the Revolutionary War to fill civil service positions in the new government.

               1801  Thomas Jefferson
 Began the spoils system in U.S. Government employment.

               1810  Robert Owen
 Recognized need for training workers and other personnel practices.
                1829  Andrew Jackson
 Extended the spoils system in U.S. Government  employment.

               1850  John Stuart Mill
 Explained concepts such as span of control, unity of command, and wage incentives.

               1856  Daniel C. McCallum
On October 5, 1841 two American passenger trains collided head-on, making it clear that one boss could not watch everything.  A well-defined organizational structure was needed, and McCallum developed the organization chart to show that structure.

               1883  Pendleton Act
Curbed the spoils system and established the U.S. Civil Service Commission.

               1887  Woodrow Wilson
 While still a practicing political scientist, Wilson called for public administration to focus on effectiveness and efficiency - not just personnel reform.

               1900  Frederic Taylor
The "Father of Scientific Management" recognized the need for labor-management cooperation, for controlling costs, and analyzing work methods.

               1919  Boston Police Strike

               1921  Budget and Accounting Act
Was passed by Congress, creating the Bureau of the Budget (now Office of Management and   Budget) and the General Accounting Office.

               1922  Max Weber
The German sociologist articulated the classical definition of the bureaucratic form of organization.  (Was not translated and  published in the United States until after World War II.)

               1923  Classification Act
Began the rationalization of position classification in the federal service.

               1927  Elton Mayo
Began the famous management study at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago which examined the relationship between work environment and productivity.  These studies were the genesis of the human relations school of management thought.

               1930  Mary Parker Follet
Developed a management philosophy based on  individual motivation and group problem solving - a forerunner of the participatory management idea.

               1937  Brownlow Committee
Otherwise known as the President's 1937 Committee on Administrative Management and   composed of Louis Brownlow, Charles Merriam, and Luther Gulick, made sweeping  recommendations for the reorganization of the executive branch of the U.S. Government.

               1937  Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick
Provided the definitive statement of the "principles" approach to management:   planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (in  short, POSDCORB).

               1938  Chester I. Barnard
Viewed organizations as cooperative systems  in which the "functions of the executive"  (title of his classic work) were to maintain a balance between the needs of the organization and the needs of the individual and to establish effective communication.

               1939  American Society for Public  Administration(ASPA)
 A national professional organization "to advance the science, processes, and art of  public administration" was organized.

               1940  Robert K. Merton
Proclaimed that bureaucracy, which Weber (1922) had defined so systematically, had a number of dysfunctions (that is, characteristics that lead to inefficiency).

               1943  Abraham H. Maslow
Developed a theory of human motivation in which men and women moved up or down a needs   hierarchy, as each level was satisfied or threatened.
               1946  Paul Appeleby
Asserted that processes in government organizations are political - at least more  than those in business organizations.  Philip  Selznick, Norton Long, and other writers of  the late 1940's were to add theoretical and empirical support to Appeleby's most un-Wilsonian (1887) thesis.

               1947  Herbert A. Simon
 In his classic Administrative Behavior, Simon, like Merton (1940), attacked the " principles" approach to management as often being inconsistent and inapplicable.  Like Barnard (1938) and influenced by him, Simon advocated a systems approach to administration and the study of decision making.

               1949  Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon and P.M.S. Blackett
Emphasized systems analysis, operations  research, and information theory in  management.

               1955  Herbert Kaufman, Fred W. Riggs and Walter R. Sharp
First course on comparative administration introduced at Yale University.  This  movement, which represented a broadening of  public administration to other cultures,  began to wane in later years as American  foreign aid programs were scaled back.

               1957  Chris Argyris and Douglas McGregor
Placed emphasis on social psychology and research in human relations in achieving a better fit between the personality of a mature adult and the requirements of a modern organization.  Argyris developed an open-system theory of organization, while McGregor  poplarized a humanistic managerial philosophy.

               1959  Charles A. Lindblom
In his influential essay, "The Science of   Muddling Through," Lindblom attacked the rational models of decision making in government.  In reality, the model did not  work; decision makers, therefore, depend  heavily on small, incremental decisions.
               1961  Aaron Wildavsky
In an article, "The Political Implications of  Budgetary Reform," Wildavsky developed the concept of budgetary incrementalism and its political nature that led to his landmark work, The Politics of the Budgetary Process.  (1964).

               1962  President Kennedy
Issued Executive Order 10988 which permitted unionization and collective bargaining in the federal service.

               1964  Civil Rights Act of 1964
Title VII prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin in private-sector employment (would be applied to the public sector in 1972).

               1964  Robert R. Blake and  Jane S. Mouton
Proposed that every leader could be categorized in terms of two variables: concern for task and concern for people.   Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid was perhaps the best known of dozens of  adaptations of this idea, which could be  traced back to the Ohio State University  leadership studies of the 1940's.
               1965  Charles J. Hitch and Roland N. McKean
In the same year that President Johnson ordered Planning-Programming-Budgeting  Systems (PPBS) adopted governmentwide, the  "bible" of government systems analysis appeared:  The Economics of Defense in the  Nuclear Age.

               1966  Equality of Educational Opportunity:  The Coleman Report  applied the
methods of the social sciences to the analysis and evaluation of government programs.

               1967  Anthony Downs
Applied economic principles to develop  propositions to aid in predicting behavior of  bureaus and bureaucrats.  A forerunner of the  "public choice" approach to decision making.

               1967  Yehezkel Dror
Pioneered in the development of policy sciences (that is, the analysis of the anticipated effects of a public policy and  the design of better policymaking  institutions in government).

               1967-73  The New Jersey Graduated Work Incentive Experiment
First large-scale social experiment ever conducted in the U.S.  This experiment spanned 6 1/2 years (1967-1973) and cost eight million dollars.

               1968  Dwight Waldo
Under the patronage of Waldo, some young scholars gathered to critique American public  administration for ignoring values and social  equity and accepting too readily the status quo.            This movement was known as the "New Public Administration".

               1971-72 Alice Rivlin and Carol Weiss
Provided a comprehensive analysis of the methodologies and difficulties of evaluating public programs in a dynamic political environment.  Since that time, the importance of evaluation has grown rapidly.

               1972  Equal Employment Opportunity Act
Amended and applied Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to the public sector and authorized the use of "affirmative action" to remedy the results of past dsicrimination.

               1972  Griggs v. Duke Power
In this landmark opinion based on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,  the United States Supreme Court ruled that any factor used in an employment decision must be a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) related to the actual performance of the work.

               1976  Peter F. Drucker
Addressed the problems of using management-by-objectives - a process of mutual  goalsetting between employee and supervisor  for purposes of planning and evaluation - in  the public sector.

               1978  Civil Service Reform Act
 Significantly reorganized the Federal Civil Service.
               1978  Proposition 13
Was adopted by California's voters by referendum; limited that state's ability to levy property taxes and began what has come to be called the "taxpayers' revolt."

               1978  Regents v. Bakke
In its first major decision on affirmative action, the United States Supreme Court ruled that race could be a factor but not the factor in university admissions policies.  This principle was later extended to employment and gender.

               1980s  A good way to characterize the study of public administration in the U.S. today is in  terms of three impulses:  politics,  management, and public policy.  University  programs emphasizing politics tend to be  found in departments of political science or  separate schools of public administration  (e.g., Syracuse).  Programs emphasizing  management tend to be found in schools of  business (e.g., Stanford) or administration  (e.g., Yale and Cornell).  And programs  emphasizing public policy tend to be found in  schools of public affairs (e.g., Harvard and  Texas).  One should not view any of these three impulses as a panacea to replace faded  predecessors.  To understand better how  public agencies do and should operate, one should try to blend insights from all three approaches.

               1990  Americans with Disabilities Act.
Extended anti-discrimination protection to persons with disabilities.
               1991  Civil Rights Act of 1991.
Attempted, inter alia, to clarify and limit certain recent decisions of the Supreme Court that were interpreted as hostile to affirmative action.

               1993  Osborne and Gaebler publish Reinventing Government in an attempt to "empower government officials to bring business technologies to public service."

               1997  The fourth edition of Simon's classic Administrative Behavior is published on the 50th anniversary of the first.

Basic Source: Grover Starling, Managing the Public Sector, 3rd ed.  Chicago:  Dorsey Press, 1986; revised and updated by WHR.

STUDENTS:   Remember what a "highlight" is.  What appears above is, by no means, all you need to know; it is merely a starting place.  This study guide is not exhaustive in what it covers or in how it covers it.

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