1- Historical landmarks for the progress of Feminism in France. Action by French authorities.
It goes hand in hand with the social reforms (see Health Care and Social Services) and Social Changes in the wake of WWI and later the social revolution of May 68 as well as the presence of the Socialist Government in the 1980's and its return in the late 1990's.
1932: First family "subsidies" (allocations for children,
beginnings of "natalist policy" to encourage larger families).
1945: Vote to Women Women acquire the right to vote and stand for election.
1946: Principle of absolute equality between men and women enshrined in the preamble to the Constitution of the Fourth Republic.
1965: Married women entitled to work without obtaining their husband’s permission.
1966: Maternity leave extended to fourteen weeks.
1967: Contraception legalized.
1970: MLF (Movement for the Liberation of Women= Feminist mvt).
Parental authority replaces "paternal " authority.1970. The concept of "head of family" removed from the Civil Code.
1972: Principle of equal pay for men and women.
1973: Sex Education at school
1974: Abortion legal -10 weeks (LAW Veil - supported by petition signed by 300 women incl. prominent women, creation of a Ministry for the Rights of Women in the Cabinet). Contraception freely available to minors without parental consent and reimbursed by SECU.
1975: Reform of Law of divorce (by mutual consent)
1978: Rape is a crime and punished by prison. Creation of a Ministry for the family and women (Monique Pelletier).
1980: Prohibition of the dismissal of women during pregnancy. Maternity leave extended to sixteen weeks.
1981: Mitterrand Socialist Government included 6 women in the Cabinet and 26 women deputies (most from the PS).
During the Cohabitation years J. Chirac as Prime Minister abolished the position of Minister for the Rights of Women in his Government.
1982: Abortion reimbursed by SECU (free). Age of consent is 15.
1983: Law on equality of the sexes at work.
1985: Law strengthening the equality of spouses in the management of children’s assets and joint assets. Option of adding the woman’s maiden name to the child’s surname
1986: Married women administer their own assets. Job terminology, grades and titles given female equivalents.
1988: RU 486 sold. The return of the Socialist Government in 1988, and the President Mitterrand, reinstated the position of Minister for the Rights of Women
1990: Non government bodies can take civil proceedings with the consent of women victims of violence. The French Court of Appeal rules marital rape a crime.
1991: Edith Cresson: first woman Prime Minister.
1992: Domestic violence and sexual harassment at work made criminal offences. Single mothers lose their sole authority over their children and share it with the biological father
1999: PARITY : equal access of women and men to elected office and elective posts in government. The principle is enshrined in the Constitution. A poll reveals that 78% of French men and 81% of French women approve.
1999: PACS. Civil Solidarity Pact,(see wiki) introducing, alongside marriage, rights for heterosexual and homosexual couples.
2001: A paternity livret is introduced, equivalent to the maternity livret [registration record of birth, marriage, divorce, and death].
2002: Paternity leave on the birth of a child is extended from three to fourteen consecutive days. By May 1st 2002, 40% of fathers concerned (that is 50.000 men) had taken that leave.
2.France-Diplomatie: The family (click)< Discovering France: topics: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/
3. Articles Label france Mag 47: Women en Men in France
Women who move(d) France forward (Marie de France, Alienor of Aquitaine, George Sand writer, Olympe de Gouge writer, Louise Michel :activist, polemist, Marie Curie -scientist, Simone de Beauvoir-,Julia Kristeva, Marguerite Duras, Marguerite Yourcenar :writers, Françoise Giroud, Simone Weil, Edith Cresson, Segolene Royal: Politicians... ; Actress: Catherine Deneuve....)Questions:
2. Any remarks, comments on the landmarks above regarding women in France, that you found noteworthy, surprising etc..? --Compare with the US.
3. What is the PACS?
4. What is PARITY ? Some arguments for or against Parity: Reflect on these:
-a/ 50% of men are women
-b/ Men and women are citizens defined by the Declaration of Human Rights.
-c/ Women have special interests therefore they constitute a Special Interest group, like the minorities (racial, gay-lesbian groups, handicapped etc...) and deserve representation.
5. Choose 2 articles (in Label France 47 ) and identify the main points
5a. Women What are the inequalities between men and women still in existence in France?
6 -Browsing through the articles above, can you sum up a French Concept of feminism? Is it different (and if so how?) from the US concept of feminism?
6a. Give the names of some prominent French women
7. Define a difference in the concept of French vs American masculinity?
8. Are according to you there differences in relations between men and women in France and in the USA?
9. For fun: Some French sites for women
The Myth of the French woman: http://www.garancedore.fr/en/2009/01/09/la-femme-francaise/
Comic: Florence Foresti:I don't like boys (je n'aime pas les garçons) : http://www.paperblog.fr/1182084/femmes-femmes-femmes-francaises/
I don't like girls/Je n’aime pas les filles
Planetfemmes (check the French version and the English : comment on the differences)
10. Films: French Twist, Blue/White/Red (trilogy),Venus
Beauty, French Kiss,
Queen Margot, Cousin-Cousine, Indochine, Chaos (see Film list)