Cow (Family Bovidae)

The neck shows a 3rd Order lever: the cervical vertebrae and scapula form the fulcrum; the pectoral muscle is contracting, pulling the head down; the neck is moving down.

The foreleg shows a 1st Order lever: the humerus and radius form the fulcrum; the triceps brachii muscle is contracting, pulling the radius and ulna posteriorly; the foreleg is moving back.


The neck lever's VR is around 3/1; the foreleg lever's VR is similar to that of the horse: 13/1.

The foreleg's high VR is built for speed; the neck has a lower VR, so it moves more slowly but probably has more power (higher MA) even though it is a 3rd Order lever.