Planning and Conducting Research

- Method for Observation
- Basic Steps in Planning Research
Method for Observation
- Statement of the problem/s accompanied by sufficient information
- Hypothesis and alternatives
- Objectives of the research or study
- Plan budget and assume constraints & limitations
- Statement of the appropriate theoretical and analytical
  approach & procedures
- Data requirements including sources and procedures for
  obtaining data
- A detailed work plan showing different stages of the research
  to be done and their time sequence
- The reports to be issued to each audience
Basic Steps in Planning & Conducting Research
- Identify the problem area
- Survey the literature relating to the problem
- Define the actual problem for investigation in clear specific terms
- Formulate hypotheses and define the basic concepts & variables
- State the underlying assumptions which govern the interpretation
  of results
- Construct a time-table showing different stages of research
- Construct the research design to maximize internal & external validity
   - Selection of subjects
   - Control and/or manipulation of relevant variables
   - Establish criteria to develop outcomes
   - Instrumentation selection or development of the criterion measures
- Specify the data collection procedures
- Select the data analysis methodology
- Execute the research
- Evaluate the results and draw conclusions